Neurocognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Siri D.S. Noordermeer*, Marjolein Luman, Jan K. Buitelaar, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Stephen V. Faraone, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and may account for inconsistencies in findings on neurocognitive functioning in ADHD. Our aim was to assess cool and hot executive functioning (EF) and temporal processing in ADHD with and without comorbid ODD to elucidate the effects of comorbid ODD. Method: ADHD-only (n = 82), ADHD + ODD (n = 82), and controls (n = 82), with mean age 16 years (SD = 3.1), matched for age, gender, IQ, and ADHD type (clinical groups) were assessed on cool EF (inhibition, working memory), hot EF (reinforcement processing, emotion recognition), and temporal processing (time production and reproduction). Results: Individuals with ADHD + ODD showed abnormalities in inhibition, working memory, facial emotion recognition, and temporal processing, whereas individuals with ADHD-only were solely impaired in working memory and time production. Conclusion: Findings suggest that ODD carries a substantial part of the EF deficits observed in ADHD and contrast with current theories of neurocognitive impairments in ADHD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1317-1329
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020

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