Recent progress in growth factor research has led to a reexamination of the involvement of neurotrophic factors outside their classical domain of the nervous system. These last few years have seen a substantial accumulation of data concerning Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)'s prevalence within the prostate. NGF and its receptors were reported from the normal prostatic tissue, benign hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Divergent ideas about the biological role of this factor, its specific distribution pattern within the tissue and its implication in the progression of carcinogenesis have been proposed. Especially the role of NGF in the metastatic process bears direct clinical relevance for research in this area. Many questions remain to be solved like the one on the prevalence of other neurotrophic factors. It is now increasingly becoming clear that neurotrophic factors do play a role in normal physiology and pathology of prostatic cells, opening up new prospects for diagnosis and treatment.