Background: Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) experience higher rates of age-related morbidity, including abnormal brain structure, brain function, and cognitive impairment. This has raised concerns that PLWH may experience accelerated aging-related brain pathology.
Methods: We performed a multicenter longitudinal study of 134 virologically suppressed PLWH (median age, 56.0 years) and 79 demographically similar human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative controls (median age, 57.2 years). To measure cognitive performance and brain pathology, we conducted detailed neuropsychological assessments and multimodality neuroimaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], resting-state functional MRI, spectroscopy, arterial spin labeling) at baseline and at 2 years. Group differences in rates of change were assessed using linear mixed effects models.
Results: One hundred twenty-three PLWH and 78 HIV-negative controls completed longitudinal assessments (median interval, 1.97 years). There were no differences between PLWH and HIV-negative controls in age, sex, years of education, smoking or alcohol use. At baseline, PLWH had poorer global cognitive performance (P < .01), lower gray matter volume (P = .04), higher white matter hyperintensity load (P = .02), abnormal white matter microstructure (P < .005), and greater brain-predicted age difference (P = .01). Longitudinally, there were no significant differences in rates of change in any neuroimaging measure between PLWH and HIV-negative controls (P > .1). Cognitive performance was longitudinally stable in both groups.
Conclusions: We found no evidence that middle-aged PLWH, when receiving successful treatment, are at increased risk of accelerated aging-related brain changes or cognitive decline over 2 years.