Vast parts of mammalian genomes are actively transcribed, predominantly giving rise to non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts including microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs among others. Contrary to previous opinions that most of these RNAs are non-functional molecules, they are now recognized as critical regulators of many physiological and pathological processes including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery of functional ncRNAs has opened up new research avenues aiming at understanding ncRNA-related disease mechanisms as well as exploiting them as novel therapeutics in cardiovascular therapy. In this review, we give an update on the current progress in ncRNA research, particularly focusing on cardiovascular physiological and disease processes, which are under current investigation at the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart. This includes a range of topics such as extracellular vesicle-mediated communication, neurohormonal regulation, inflammation, cardiac remodelling, cardio-oncology as well as cardiac development and regeneration, collectively highlighting the wide-spread involvement and importance of ncRNAs in the cardiovascular system.