Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of bone turnover but can be oxidized in vivo, which impairs biological activity. Variable PTH oxidation may account for the rather poor correlation of PTH with indices of bone turnover in chronic kidney disease. Here, we tested whether non-oxidized PTH is superior to total PTH as a marker of bone turnover in 31 patients with kidney failure included from an ongoing prospective observational bone biopsy study and selected to cover the whole spectrum of bone turnover. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, Spearman correlation and regression analysis of non-oxidized PTH, total PTH and bone turnover markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, procollagen N-terminal pro-peptide and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were used to assess the capability of non-oxidized PTH vs. total PTH to discriminate low from non-low and high from non-high bone turnover, as assessed quantitatively by bone histomorphometry. Serum levels of non-oxidized PTH and total PTH were strongly and significantly correlated. Histomorphometric parameters of bone turnover and the circulating bone turnover markers showed similar correlation coefficients with non-oxidized PTH and total PTH. The area under the ROC (AUROC) values for discriminating between low/non-low turnover for non-oxidized PTH and total PTH were significant and comparable (0.82 and 0.79, respectively). For high/non-high turnover the AUROCs were also significant and of the same magnitude (0.76 and 0.80, respectively). Thus, measuring non-oxidized PTH using the currently available method provides no added value compared to total PTH as an indicator of bone turnover in patients with kidney failure.