Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are of vital importance in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, a major complication of transfusion therapy is alloimmunization. The low-affinity Fcg receptors, expressed on immune cells, are important regulators of antibody responses. Genetic variation in FCGR genes has been associated with various auto- and alloimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between genetic variation of FCGR and RBC alloimmunization in SCD. In this case-control study, DNA samples from 2 cohorts of transfused SCD patients were combined (France and The Netherlands). Cases had a positive history of alloimmunization, having received ‡1 RBC unit. Controls had a negative history of alloimmunization, having received ‡20 RBC units. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation of the FCGR2/3 gene cluster were studied in a FCGR-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. Frequencies were compared using logistic regression. Two hundred seventy-two patients were included (130 controls, 142 cases). The nonclassical open reading frame in the FCGR2C gene (FCGR2C.nc-ORF) was strongly associated with a decreased alloimmunization risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% confidence [CI] 0.11-0.64). This association persisted when only including controls with exposure to ‡100 units (OR 0.30, CI 0.11-0.85) and appeared even stronger when excluding cases with Rh or K antibodies only (OR 0.19, CI 0.06-0.59). In conclusion, SCD patients with the FCGR2C.nc-ORF polymorphism have over a 3-fold lower risk for RBC alloimmunization in comparison with patients without this mutation. This protective effect was strongest for exposure to antigens other than the immunogenic Rh or K antigens.