Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: Diagnostic difficulties in small biopsies and cytological specimens

Lukas Bubendorf, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Adrianus J. de Langen, Erik Thunnissen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The pathological and molecular classification of lung cancer has become substantially more complex over the past decade. For diagnostic purposes on small samples, additional stains are frequently required to distinguish between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, for advanced nonsquamous cell nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, predictive analyses on epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS1 are required. In NSCLCs negative for these biomarkers, programmed death ligand-1 immunohistochemistry is performed. Small samples (biopsy and cytology) require “tissue” management, which is best achieved by the interaction of all physicians involved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number170007
JournalEuropean Respiratory Review
Issue number144
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2017

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