Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram

Vivian P. Kamphuis, Nico A. Blom, Erik W. van Zwet, Sumche Man, Arend D. J. ten Harkel, Arie C. Maan, Cees A. Swenne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Normal values of the mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiogram (VCG) are lacking for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess normal values of the pediatric synthesized VCG (spatial QRS-T angle [SA] and ventricular gradient [VG]). Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 1263 subjects (0–24 years) with a normal heart were retrospectively selected. VCGs were synthesized by the Kors matrix. Normal values (presented as 2nd and 98th percentiles) were assessed by quantile regression with smoothing by splines. Results: Our results show that heart rate decreased over age, QRS duration increased and QTc interval remained constant. The SA initially decreased and increased again from the age of 8 years. The VG magnitude was relatively stable until the age of 2 years, after which it increased. Conclusion: Normal values of the pediatric ECG and VCG (VG and SA) were established. These normal values could be important for future studies using VG and SA for risk stratification in heart disease in children.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)490-495
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Volume51
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

Kamphuis, V. P., Blom, N. A., van Zwet, E. W., Man, S., ten Harkel, A. D. J., Maan, A. C., & Swenne, C. A. (2018). Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram. Journal of Electrocardiology, 51(3), 490-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2018.01.002
Kamphuis, Vivian P. ; Blom, Nico A. ; van Zwet, Erik W. ; Man, Sumche ; ten Harkel, Arend D. J. ; Maan, Arie C. ; Swenne, Cees A. / Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram. In: Journal of Electrocardiology. 2018 ; Vol. 51, No. 3. pp. 490-495.
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abstract = "Background: Normal values of the mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiogram (VCG) are lacking for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess normal values of the pediatric synthesized VCG (spatial QRS-T angle [SA] and ventricular gradient [VG]). Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 1263 subjects (0–24 years) with a normal heart were retrospectively selected. VCGs were synthesized by the Kors matrix. Normal values (presented as 2nd and 98th percentiles) were assessed by quantile regression with smoothing by splines. Results: Our results show that heart rate decreased over age, QRS duration increased and QTc interval remained constant. The SA initially decreased and increased again from the age of 8 years. The VG magnitude was relatively stable until the age of 2 years, after which it increased. Conclusion: Normal values of the pediatric ECG and VCG (VG and SA) were established. These normal values could be important for future studies using VG and SA for risk stratification in heart disease in children.",
author = "Kamphuis, {Vivian P.} and Blom, {Nico A.} and {van Zwet}, {Erik W.} and Sumche Man and {ten Harkel}, {Arend D. J.} and Maan, {Arie C.} and Swenne, {Cees A.}",
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Kamphuis, VP, Blom, NA, van Zwet, EW, Man, S, ten Harkel, ADJ, Maan, AC & Swenne, CA 2018, 'Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram' Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 490-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2018.01.002

Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram. / Kamphuis, Vivian P.; Blom, Nico A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Man, Sumche; ten Harkel, Arend D. J.; Maan, Arie C.; Swenne, Cees A.

In: Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2018, p. 490-495.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Kamphuis, Vivian P.

AU - Blom, Nico A.

AU - van Zwet, Erik W.

AU - Man, Sumche

AU - ten Harkel, Arend D. J.

AU - Maan, Arie C.

AU - Swenne, Cees A.

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N2 - Background: Normal values of the mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiogram (VCG) are lacking for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess normal values of the pediatric synthesized VCG (spatial QRS-T angle [SA] and ventricular gradient [VG]). Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 1263 subjects (0–24 years) with a normal heart were retrospectively selected. VCGs were synthesized by the Kors matrix. Normal values (presented as 2nd and 98th percentiles) were assessed by quantile regression with smoothing by splines. Results: Our results show that heart rate decreased over age, QRS duration increased and QTc interval remained constant. The SA initially decreased and increased again from the age of 8 years. The VG magnitude was relatively stable until the age of 2 years, after which it increased. Conclusion: Normal values of the pediatric ECG and VCG (VG and SA) were established. These normal values could be important for future studies using VG and SA for risk stratification in heart disease in children.

AB - Background: Normal values of the mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiogram (VCG) are lacking for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess normal values of the pediatric synthesized VCG (spatial QRS-T angle [SA] and ventricular gradient [VG]). Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 1263 subjects (0–24 years) with a normal heart were retrospectively selected. VCGs were synthesized by the Kors matrix. Normal values (presented as 2nd and 98th percentiles) were assessed by quantile regression with smoothing by splines. Results: Our results show that heart rate decreased over age, QRS duration increased and QTc interval remained constant. The SA initially decreased and increased again from the age of 8 years. The VG magnitude was relatively stable until the age of 2 years, after which it increased. Conclusion: Normal values of the pediatric ECG and VCG (VG and SA) were established. These normal values could be important for future studies using VG and SA for risk stratification in heart disease in children.

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