Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a mineral and bone disorder globally described as CKD-Mineral and Bone Disease (MBD), including renal osteodystrophy, the latter ranging from high bone turnover, as in case of secondary hyperparathyroidism(SHPT), to low bone turnover. The present article summarizes the important subjects that were covered during 'The Parathyroid Day in Chronic Kidney Disease' CME course organized in Paris in September 2017. It includes the latest insights on parathyroid gland growth, parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis, secretion and regulation by the calcium-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-Klotho axis, as well as on parathyroid glands imaging. The skeletal action of PTH in early CKD stages to the steadily increasing activation of the often downregulated PTH receptor type 1 has been critically reviewed, emphasizing that therapeutic strategies to decrease PTH levels at these stages might not be recommended. The effects of PTH on the central nervous system, in particular cognitive functions, and on the cardiovascular system are revised, and the reliability and exchangeability of second- and thirdgeneration PTH immunoassays discussed. The article also reviews the different circulating biomarkers used for the diagnosis and monitoring of CKD-MBD, including PTH and alkaline phosphatases isoforms. Moreover, it presents an update on the control of SHPT by vitamin D compounds, old and new calcimimetics, and parathyroidectomy. Finally, it covers the latest insights on the persistence and de novo occurrence of SHPT in renal transplant recipients.