On the ecosystemic network of saliva in healthy young adults

Egija Zaura*, Bernd W. Brandt, Andrei Prodan, Maarten Joost Teixeira De Mattos, Sultan Imangaliyev, Jolanda Kool, Mark J. Buijs, Ferry Lpw Jagers, Nienke L. Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Dagmar E. Slot, Elena A. Nicu, Maxim D. Lagerweij, Marleen M. Janus, Marcela M. Fernandez-Gutierrez, Evgeni Levin, Bastiaan P. Krom, Henk S. Brand, Enno Ci Veerman, Michiel Kleerebezem, Bruno G. LoosG. A. Van Der Weijden, Wim Crielaard, Bart Jf Keijser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the ecobiological heterogeneity of the salivary ecosystem and relations between the salivary microbiome, salivary metabolome and host-related biochemical salivary parameters in 268 healthy adults after overnight fasting. Gender-specific differences in the microbiome and metabolome were observed and were associated with salivary pH and dietary protein intake. Our analysis grouped the individuals into five microbiome and four metabolome-based clusters that significantly related to biochemical parameters of saliva. Low salivary pH and high lysozyme activity were associated with high proportions of streptococcal phylotypes and increased membrane-lipid degradation products. Samples with high salivary pH displayed increased chitinase activity, higher abundance of Veillonella and Prevotella species and higher levels of amino acid fermentation products, suggesting proteolytic adaptation. An over-specialization toward either a proteolytic or a saccharolytic ecotype may indicate a shift toward a dysbiotic state. Their prognostic value and the degree to which these ecotypes are related to increased disease risk remains to be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218-1231
Number of pages14
JournalISME Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

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