BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), a common complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Etelcalcetide is an intravenous calcimimetic that increases sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor to calcium and decreases PTH secretion. This open-label extension (OLE) trial evaluated the long-term effects of etelcalcetide for sHPT treatment in patients receiving hemodialysis. METHODS: This 52-week, multicenter, single-arm OLE enrolled patients from three parent trials: two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and one open-label, single-arm, 'switch' study from cinacalcet to etelcalcetide. The primary endpoint was to investigate the nature, frequency, severity and relation to treatment of all adverse events (AEs) reported throughout the trial. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients with >30% reduction from baseline in PTH and the percentage change from baseline in PTH, albumin-corrected calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and the calcium-phosphate product (Ca × P).ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01785875; Amgen study: 20120231. RESULTS: Overall, 89.8% of the patients experienced one or more treatment-emergent AE. The most common were decreased blood Ca (43.3%), diarrhea (10.8%), vomiting (10.4%) and nausea (9.6%); symptomatic hypocalcemia occurred in 3.7% of the patients. Approximately 68% of patients achieved >30% reduction in PTH, and ∼56% achieved PTH ≤300 pg/mL. Mean percent changes from baseline ranged from -25.4% to -26.1% for PTH, -8.3% to -9.1% for Ca, -3.6% to -4.1% for P and -12.0% to -12.6% for Ca × P. CONCLUSIONS: Etelcalcetide effectively lowered PTH and its effect was sustained, while no new safety concerns emerged over a 1-year treatment period.