OBJECTIVE - To investigate the effects of a multiple injection regimen with a mixture of 75% lispro and 25% intermediate-acting insulin (lispro high mixture [HM]) before meals on glycemic control, physiological responses to hypoglycemia, well-being, and treatment satisfaction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 35 type 1 diabetes patients. After an 8- to 10-week lead-in period, patients were randomized to HM or human regular insulin therapy for 12-14 weeks. During the lead-in and treatment periods, HbA(1c) levels and hypoglycemic frequencies were measured, and patients completed the Well-Being Questionnaire and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. In 19 patients, responses to hypoglycemia were tested during stepped euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamps. RESULTS - HM treatment improved postprandial glycemia but had no effect on HbA(1c), frequency of hypoglycemia, well-being, or treatment satisfaction. During experimental hypoglycemia, HM therapy was associated with a slightly lower total adrenaline response and a higher autonomic symptom threshold (i.e., the autonomic symptom response occurred at a lower blood glucose level) than human regular insulin therapy. We speculate that this effect resulted from an accumulation of insulin during the night. CONCLUSIONS - Multiple injection therapy with HM rather than human regular insulin before meals does not offer advantages regarding glycemic control, frequency of hypoglycemia, well-being, or treatment satisfaction. In addition, this regimen causes an attenuation of the adrenaline and autonomic symptom responses to hypoglycemia.