Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor and is one of the few life-threatening diseases that present first to the ophthalmologist. It is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of the head and neck in childhood with 10% of all cases occurring in the orbit. RMS has been reported from birth to the seventh decade, with the majority of cases presenting in early childhood. Survival has changed drastically over the years, from 30% in the 1960's to 90% presently, with the advent of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to provide a general overview of primary orbital RMS derived from a literature search of material published over the last 10. years, as well as to present two representative cases of patients that have been managed at our institute. © 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.