Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) are characterized by damage to the articular cartilage of the talus and its underlying subchondral bone. Up to 75% of OLTs are caused by trauma, such as an ankle sprain or fracture. Physical examination and imaging are crucial for diagnosis and characterization of an OLT. No superior treatment for OLTs exists. It is paramount that an evidence-based personalized treatment approach is applied to patients with OLTs because lesion and patient characteristics guide treatment. This current concepts review covers clinical and preclinical evidence on OLT etiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment, all based on the Amsterdam perspective.