Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: One-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons

Ferdinand W.N.M. Wit, Remko Van Leeuwen, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Suzanne Jurriaans, Klaas Nauta, Radjin Steingrover, Johan Schuijtemaker, Xander Eyssen, David Fortuin, Marjan Weeda, Frank De Wolf, Peter Reiss, Sven A. Danner, Joep M.A. Lange*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; χ2, P = .001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1.35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)790-798
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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