Previous cross-sectional MRI studies based on region-of-interest analyses have shown that increased cerebral atrophy is a feature of both Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Relative preservation of the hippocampus and temporal lobe structures in DLB compared to AD has been reported in region-of-interest-based studies. Recently, image processing techniques such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have been developed to provide an unbiased, visually informative, and comprehensive means of studying patterns of cerebral atrophy. We report the first study to use the voxel-based approach to assess patterns of cerebral atrophy in DLB compared to control subjects and AD. Regional gray matter volume loss was observed bilaterally in the temporal and frontal lobes and insular cortex of patients with DLB compared to control subjects. Comparison of dementia groups showed preservation of the medial temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala in DLB relative to AD. Significant gray matter loss was also observed in the thalamus of AD patients compared to DLB.