PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors show potential for cervical cancer treatment. However, low response rates suggest that patient selection based on PD-L1 protein expression is not optimal. Here, we evaluated different PD-L1 detection methods and studied transcriptional regulation of PD-L1/PD-L2 expression by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) mRNAseq analysis. First, we determined the copy number of the PD-L1/PD-L2 locus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PD-L1 mRNA expression by RNA in situ hybridization (RNAish), and PD-L1/PD-L2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays containing a cohort of 60 patients. Additionally, distribution of PD-L1/PD-L2 was visualized based on flow cytometry analysis of single-cell suspensions (n = 10). PD-L1/PD-L2 locus amplification was rare (2%). PD-L1 mRNA expression in tumor cells was detected in 56% of cases, while 41% expressed PD-L1 protein. Discordant scores for PD-L1 protein expression on tumor cells between cores from one patient were observed in 27% of cases. Interestingly, with RNAish, PD-L1 heterogeneity was observed in only 11% of the cases. PD-L2 protein expression was found in 53%. PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression on tumor cells were strongly correlated (p < 0.001). PD-L1 and PD-L2 protein expression showed no correlation on tumor cells (p = 0.837), but a strong correlation on cells in stromal fields (p < 0.001). Co-expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on macrophage-like populations was also observed with flow cytometry analysis. Both PD-L1 and PD-L2 TCGA transcript levels strongly correlated in the TCGA data, and both PD-L1 and PD-L2 strongly correlated with interferon gamma (IFNG) expression/transcript levels (p < 0.0001). Importantly, patients with high PD-L1/PD-L2/IFNG transcript levels had a survival advantage over patients with high PD-L1/PD-L2 and low IFNG expression. Based on these findings, we conclude that PD-L1/PD-L2 expression in cervical cancer is mainly associated with interferon induction and not gene amplification, which makes FISH unsuitable as biomarker. The heterogeneous PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression patterns suggest IHC unreliable for patient selection. RNAish, in conjunction with interferon signaling evaluation, seems a promising technique for immune checkpoint detection. These results warrant further investigation into their prognostic and predictive potential.