Persistence and Adherence to Psychostimulants, and Psychological Well-Being Up to 3 Years after Specialized Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

Denise Bijlenga, Semahat Kulcu, Trevor Van Gellecum, Zeynep Eryigit, J. J.Sandra Kooij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background Little is known about the long-term persistence and adherence of psychostimulant use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to their psychological well-being. Methods The persistence and adherence to psychostimulants and psychological well-being were examined in adults with ADHD in a naturalistic follow-up, starting directly after discharge from their specialized treatment of ADHD at an outpatient ADHD clinic. Ninety-six patients were included at the time of discharge, who were interviewed by telephone at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after discharge. Results At the time of discharge, 78% used a psychostimulant prescribed by a psychiatrist. Of those on psychostimulants at the time of discharge, approximately half still used any of these psychostimulants 3 years after discharge. However, adherence rates were good for those who persisted to use psychostimulants. The female sex and middle educational level (relative to a higher educational level) were near-significantly related to nonpersistence, and having a higher educational level and the combined ADHD subtype were related to nonadherence. In turn, nonadherence was related to worse general functioning, lower mood, and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions The importance of adherence should be discussed at the time of discharge, especially with female ADHD patients, those with a higher educational level, and those with a combined ADHD subtype, because nonadherence is associated with poorer outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-696
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume37
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Cite this

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title = "Persistence and Adherence to Psychostimulants, and Psychological Well-Being Up to 3 Years after Specialized Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Naturalistic Follow-Up Study",
abstract = "Background Little is known about the long-term persistence and adherence of psychostimulant use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to their psychological well-being. Methods The persistence and adherence to psychostimulants and psychological well-being were examined in adults with ADHD in a naturalistic follow-up, starting directly after discharge from their specialized treatment of ADHD at an outpatient ADHD clinic. Ninety-six patients were included at the time of discharge, who were interviewed by telephone at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after discharge. Results At the time of discharge, 78{\%} used a psychostimulant prescribed by a psychiatrist. Of those on psychostimulants at the time of discharge, approximately half still used any of these psychostimulants 3 years after discharge. However, adherence rates were good for those who persisted to use psychostimulants. The female sex and middle educational level (relative to a higher educational level) were near-significantly related to nonpersistence, and having a higher educational level and the combined ADHD subtype were related to nonadherence. In turn, nonadherence was related to worse general functioning, lower mood, and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions The importance of adherence should be discussed at the time of discharge, especially with female ADHD patients, those with a higher educational level, and those with a combined ADHD subtype, because nonadherence is associated with poorer outcomes.",
keywords = "adherence, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, persistence, psychostimulants",
author = "Denise Bijlenga and Semahat Kulcu and {Van Gellecum}, Trevor and Zeynep Eryigit and Kooij, {J. J.Sandra}",
year = "2017",
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language = "English",
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pages = "689--696",
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Persistence and Adherence to Psychostimulants, and Psychological Well-Being Up to 3 Years after Specialized Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Naturalistic Follow-Up Study. / Bijlenga, Denise; Kulcu, Semahat; Van Gellecum, Trevor; Eryigit, Zeynep; Kooij, J. J.Sandra.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 37, No. 6, 01.12.2017, p. 689-696.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Persistence and Adherence to Psychostimulants, and Psychological Well-Being Up to 3 Years after Specialized Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

T2 - A Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

AU - Bijlenga, Denise

AU - Kulcu, Semahat

AU - Van Gellecum, Trevor

AU - Eryigit, Zeynep

AU - Kooij, J. J.Sandra

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - Background Little is known about the long-term persistence and adherence of psychostimulant use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to their psychological well-being. Methods The persistence and adherence to psychostimulants and psychological well-being were examined in adults with ADHD in a naturalistic follow-up, starting directly after discharge from their specialized treatment of ADHD at an outpatient ADHD clinic. Ninety-six patients were included at the time of discharge, who were interviewed by telephone at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after discharge. Results At the time of discharge, 78% used a psychostimulant prescribed by a psychiatrist. Of those on psychostimulants at the time of discharge, approximately half still used any of these psychostimulants 3 years after discharge. However, adherence rates were good for those who persisted to use psychostimulants. The female sex and middle educational level (relative to a higher educational level) were near-significantly related to nonpersistence, and having a higher educational level and the combined ADHD subtype were related to nonadherence. In turn, nonadherence was related to worse general functioning, lower mood, and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions The importance of adherence should be discussed at the time of discharge, especially with female ADHD patients, those with a higher educational level, and those with a combined ADHD subtype, because nonadherence is associated with poorer outcomes.

AB - Background Little is known about the long-term persistence and adherence of psychostimulant use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to their psychological well-being. Methods The persistence and adherence to psychostimulants and psychological well-being were examined in adults with ADHD in a naturalistic follow-up, starting directly after discharge from their specialized treatment of ADHD at an outpatient ADHD clinic. Ninety-six patients were included at the time of discharge, who were interviewed by telephone at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after discharge. Results At the time of discharge, 78% used a psychostimulant prescribed by a psychiatrist. Of those on psychostimulants at the time of discharge, approximately half still used any of these psychostimulants 3 years after discharge. However, adherence rates were good for those who persisted to use psychostimulants. The female sex and middle educational level (relative to a higher educational level) were near-significantly related to nonpersistence, and having a higher educational level and the combined ADHD subtype were related to nonadherence. In turn, nonadherence was related to worse general functioning, lower mood, and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions The importance of adherence should be discussed at the time of discharge, especially with female ADHD patients, those with a higher educational level, and those with a combined ADHD subtype, because nonadherence is associated with poorer outcomes.

KW - adherence

KW - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

KW - persistence

KW - psychostimulants

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U2 - 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000787

DO - 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000787

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 689

EP - 696

JO - Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

JF - Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

SN - 0271-0749

IS - 6

ER -