Previous studies found modest associations between cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in community samples of older adults. Low levels of cognitive functioning are associated with depressive symptoms. The present study investigates whether personality (locus of control and neuroticism) moderates this relation, and whether gender-differences in moderating effects can be established. The study is based on data of the baseline sample of 3107 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), which was age (55-85 years) and sex-stratified. Multiple regression analyses are used to detect moderating effects. The findings show modest effects, indicating that personality is a moderator of the relation between cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms, particularly in women. In women, a relatively strong internal locus of control is protective of becoming depressed when experiencing impairment in general cognitive functioning (MMSE), and impairment in fluid intelligence and information processing speed. In men, a low level of neuroticism is protective of becoming depressed when experiencing memory impairment. If these findings are replicated and extended in future studies, pertinent interventions such as cognitive therapy or memory training may be designed to alleviate depressive symptoms.