The dynamic behavior of the wrist joint is governed by nonlinear properties, yet applied mathematical models, used to describe the measured input-output (perturbation-response) relationship, are commonly linear. Consequently, the linearly estimated model parameters will depend on properties of the applied perturbation properties (such perturbation amplitude and velocity). We aimed to systematically address the effects of perturbation velocity on linearly estimated neuromechanical parameters. Using a single axis manipulator ramp and hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint. Effects of perturbation velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 rad/s) were investigated at multiple background torque levels (0, 0.5 and 1 N·m). With increasing perturbation velocity, estimated joint stiffness remained constant, while damping and reflex gain decreased. This variation in model parameters is dependent on background torque levels, i.e. muscle contraction. These observations support the future development of nonlinear models that are capable of describing wrist joint behavior over a larger range of loading conditions, exceeding the restricted range of operation that is required for linearization.
Klomp, A., de Vlugt, E., de Groot, J. H., Meskers, C. G. M., Arendzen, J. H., & van der Helm, F. C. T. (2018). Perturbation velocity affects linearly estimated neuromechanical wrist joint properties. Journal of Biomechanics, 74, 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.04.007