BACKGROUND: Iberdomide, a cereblon modulator promoting degradation of the transcription factors Ikaros and Aiolos, which affect leukocyte development and autoimmunity, is being evaluated for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:2:1:2 ratio to receive oral iberdomide (at a dose of 0.45, 0.30, or 0.15 mg) or placebo once daily for 24 weeks, in addition to standard medications. The primary end point at week 24 was a response on the SLE Responder Index (SRI-4), which was defined as a reduction of at least 4 points in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score (a 24-item weighted score of lupus activity that ranges from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating greater disease activity), no new disease activity as measured on the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 index, and no increase of 0.3 points or more in the Physician's Global Assessment score (on a visual-analogue scale ranging from 0 [no disease activity] to 3 [maximal disease]). RESULTS: A total of 288 patients received the assigned intervention: 81 received iberdomide at a dose of 0.45 mg, 82 received iberdomide at a dose of 0.30 mg, 42 received iberdomide at a dose of 0.15 mg, and 83 received placebo. At week 24, the percentages of patients with an SRI-4 response were 54% in the iberdomide 0.45-mg group, 40% in the iberdomide 0.30-mg group, 48% in the iberdomide 0.15-mg group, and 35% in the placebo group (adjusted difference between the iberdomide 0.45-mg group and the placebo group, 19.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 33.4; P = 0.01), with no significant differences between the groups that received the lower doses of iberdomide and the group that received placebo. Iberdomide-associated adverse events included urinary tract and upper respiratory tract infections and neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: In this 24-week, phase 2 trial involving patients with SLE, iberdomide at a dose of 0.45 mg resulted in a higher percentage of patients with an SRI-4 response than did placebo. Data from larger, longer trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of iberdomide in SLE. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03161483; EudraCT number, 2016-004574-17.).