Phenotype, biochemical features, genotype and treatment outcome of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

Amal Al Teneiji, Theodora U J Bruun, Dawn Cordeiro, Jaina Patel, Michal Inbar-Feigenberg, Shelly Weiss, Eduard Struys, Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu

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We report treatment outcome of eleven patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy caused by pathogenic variants in ALDH7A1 (PDE-ALDH7A1). We developed a clinical severity score to compare phenotype with biochemical features, genotype and delays in the initiation of pyridoxine. Clinical severity score included 1) global developmental delay/ intellectual disability; 2) age of seizure onset prior to pyridoxine; 3) current seizures on treatment. Phenotype scored 1-3 = mild; 4-6 = moderate; and 7-9 = severe. Five patients had mild, four patients had moderate, and two patients had severe phenotype. Phenotype ranged from mild to severe in eight patients (no lysine-restricted diet in the infantile period) with more than 10-fold elevated urine or plasma α-AASA levels. Phenotype ranged from mild to moderate in patients with homozygous truncating variants and from moderate to severe in patients with homozygous missense variants. There was no correlation between severity of the phenotype and the degree of α-AASA elevation in urine or genotype. All patients were on pyridoxine, nine patients were on arginine and five patients were on the lysine-restricted diet. 73% of the patients became seizure free on pyridoxine. 25% of the patients had a mild phenotype on pyridoxine monotherapy. Whereas, 100% of the patients, on the lysine-restricted diet initiated within their first 7 months of life, had a mild phenotype. Early initiation of lysine-restricted diet and/or arginine therapy likely improved neurodevelopmental outcome in young patients with PDE-ALDH7A1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-451
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

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