AIM: To investigate the relative contribution of phenotypic and lifestyle factors to HbA1c, independent of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h post-load glucose (2hPG), in the general population. METHODS: The study populations included 2309 participants without known diabetes from the first wave of the Hoorn Study (1989) and 2619 from the second wave (2006). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between potential determinants and HbA1c in addition to FPG and 2hPG. The multivariate model was derived in the first wave of the Hoorn Study, and replicated in the second wave. RESULTS: In both cohorts, independent of FPG and 2hPG, higher age, female sex, larger waist circumference, and smoking were associated with a higher HbA1c level. Larger hip circumference, higher BMI, higher alcohol consumption and vitamin C intake were associated with a lower HbA1c level. FPG and 2hPG together explained 41.0% (first wave) and 53.0% (second wave) of the total variance in HbA1c. The combination of phenotypic and lifestyle determinants additionally explained 5.7% (first wave) and 3.9% (second wave). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, independent of glucose, phenotypic and lifestyle factors are associated with HbA1c, but the contribution is relatively small. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the low correlation between glucose levels and HbA1c in the general population.