Background: The placenta plays a crucial role during pregnancy and dysfunction causes long-term neurological problems. Identifying placenta-related risks for neurological problems shortly after birth may provide clues for early interventions aiming to improve neurological outcome. Objective: To determine the association between placental pathology and neurological morbidity in preterm infants during the first two weeks after birth. Study design: Placentas of 52 singleton, preterm infants (GA: 25-31. weeks, BW: 560-2250 grammes) were examined for histopathology. The infants' neurological condition shortly after birth was determined by assessing the quality of their general movements (GMs): normal, abnormal, or hypokinetic, on days 5, 8, and 15. A motor optimality score (MOS) was also assigned. Results: Examination of the placentas revealed maternal vascular underperfusion (n = 29), ascending intrauterine infection (AIUI) (n = 19), villitis of unknown aetiology (n = 6), chronic deciduitis (n = 11), foetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) (n = 9), and elevated nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) as a marker for foetal hypoxia (n = 7). None of the placental lesions were significantly associated with the quality of GMs or MOS. Conclusions: This study indicated that placental lesions were not associated with infants' neurological condition as measured by the quality of their general movements during the first two weeks after birth.