Plasma cortisol and norepinephrine in Alzheimer's disease: Opposite relations with recall performance and stage of progression

Karel J. Bemelmans*, Annemarie Noort, Roel De Rijk, Huub A.M. Middelkoop, Godfried M.J. Van Kempen, Jaap G. Goekoop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by effortful retrieval memory impairments, loss of hippocampal neurons and elevated plasma cortisol (CORT) concentrations. The latter could induce further memory decline. AD is also characterized by increased central and peripheral noradrenergic activity. Since noradrenergic function is involved in memory formation, this upregulated function could counteract memory decline. The aim of the present study was to test these hypotheses using plasma norepinephrine (NE) as a noradrenergic parameter, and recall of the prerecency part of neutral valence word lists as a measure of effortful retrieval. Methods: Area under the curve (AUC) of morning, midday and afternoon plasma CORT and plasma NE concentrations was related to two measures of recall performance, ie summated recall scores of the prerecency and recency parts of three word lists, and to the stage of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Results: Partial correlation between each hormone AUC value and prerecency recall performance, controlling for the effect of the other hormone, showed opposite relations between recall and either plasma CORT or NE. Similar stronger correlations were found with the CDR score. Conclusions: Plasma CORT and NE are oppositely related with effortful retrieval and the stage of progression in AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-237
Number of pages7
JournalActa Neuropsychiatrica
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2007

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