Objective. This qualitative study aimed to explore possibilities and barriers in the implementation of a nationwide preconceptional cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening programme. Methods. Sessions were held with two focus groups of CF patients and CF relatives, one focus group of people from the target population (couples planning a pregnancy), and two focus groups of potential providers (general practitioners (GPs) and municipal health service workers). Results. Important barriers in the implementation of a preconceptional CF carrier screening programme included the problem of reaching the target population, the heavy workload of GPs, the limited public knowledge about CF in general, and the absence of a preconceptional consultation setting. In general, there was a positive attitude among the participants towards CF carrier screening. Conclusion. This study revealed some important barriers in the implementation of CF carrier screening programmes. More research is needed to specify and quantify the importance of the various barriers. Eventually, different intervention strategies should be included in an implementation plan to overcome the most important barriers in the organization and execution of screening.