Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with and without clinically significant memory deficits and healthy control participants differ on in vivo hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) in the posterior cingulate gyri. Materials and Methods: In total, 21 HIV-positive patients with memory deficit (HIV+wMD) were compared with 15 HIV-positive patients without memory deficit (HIV+wOMD) and 22 sex-, age-, and education-matched control participants. Memory impairments were classified based on the participants’ performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Short echo time (30 ms), single-voxel H-MRS was performed using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Results: The HIV+wMD and HIV+wOMD groups had higher choline/creatine ratio in the posterior cingulate gyri than the control group. There were no significant metabolite ratio differences between the HIV+wMD and HIV+wOMD groups. Conclusion: HIV-positive patients with and without memory deficits had significantly higher choline/creatine ratios than controls in the posterior cingulate gyri, which may reflect cerebral inflammation, altered cell membrane metabolism, microgliosis, and/or astrocytosis.