This chapter provides a brief overview of studies that combine postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology. We touch upon the logistics of setting up a protocol that limits unwanted postmortem delays and explain how combining postmortem MRI and histopathology can elucidate the histologic substrate of signal changes that appear on MRI. This is demonstrated by exemplary studies in multiple sclerosis, and includes various histopathologic techniques and a wide range of conventional and advanced MRI sequences at various field strengths. We cover topics such as how to visualize white-matter pathology and repair with conventional and advanced MRI sequences, describe the history of visualizing pathology of the gray matter (with newly developed MRI and immunohistopathology techniques), and how advanced methods have aided research in other neurologic diseases. We conclude with several suggestions for future development, such as bridging the gap between postmortem and in vivo research and the importance of collecting non-neurological control tissue.