Postoperative blood salvage and reinfusion in spinal surgery: Blood quality, effectiveness and impact on patient blood parameters

C. Sebastián, R. Romero, E. Olalla, C. Ferrer, J. J. García-Vallejo, M. Muñoz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Although reinfusion of salvaged shed blood has become popular in major orthopaedic procedures, this blood saving technique is still controversial. In an effort to assess the functional and metabolic status of shed blood erythrocytes and the impact of postoperative shed blood reinfusion on allogenic blood requirements and patient's blood parameters, analyses of perioperative blood samples were performed in 28 consecutive orthopaedic patients undergoing spinal fusion, in which postoperative shed blood was collected and reinfused with the ConstaVac CBC II device. In comparison with a previous series of 31 patients, this procedure reduced allogenic blood requirements by almost 30% (P < 0.05), without any increase in postoperative complications. Postoperative shed blood presented lower haematological values and higher plasma-free haemoglobin (PFHB) levels than preoperative blood, without any disturbance in morphology, median corpuscular fragility (MCF) or erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and diphosphoglycerate (DPG) content. Serum concentrations of enzymes - glutamate-oxalacetate aminotransferase (GOT), glutamate-piruvate aminotransferase (GPT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) - and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) were elevated in shed blood. After reinfusion, there was no alteration in coagulation parameters or cytokine levels. Serum levels of some enzymes increased at the end of surgery and remained elevated at postoperative day 2 (CK) or 7 (GOT, LDH), with a higher increase if postoperative autotransfusion was used as a blood saving method. Therefore, caution should be taken when these serum enzyme levels are used for diagnosis. In conclusion, salvaged shed blood in orthopaedic procedures of the spine seems to be an excellent source of red cells which are not significantly damaged, keeping a normal functional and metabolic status, and reduces allogenic blood requirements without significant side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)458-465
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Spine Journal
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000

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