Aim: To determine whether lixisenatide, a prandial short-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), ameliorates postprandial glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with insulin-glulisine (iGlu). Methods: Postprandial renal haemodynamic effects of 8-week treatment with lixisenatide 20 µg vs once-daily titrated iGlu were measured in 35 overweight patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on insulin-glargine, with or without metformin [mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years, HbA1c 8.0% ± 0.9%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 85 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2, median (IQR) urinary albumin/creatinine ratio 1.5 (0.9-3.0) mg/mmol]. After a standardised breakfast, GFR (primary endpoint) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined by inulin and para-aminohippuric acid renal clearance, respectively, based on timed urine sampling. Intrarenal haemodynamic functions were estimated using Gomez equations. Results: Compared with iGlu, lixisenatide did not affect GFR [+0.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −9 to 9)], ERPF [−17 mL/min/1.73 m2 (−61 to 26)], other (intra-)renal haemodynamics or renal damage markers, but increased fractional sodium excretion [+0.25% (0.09-0.41)] and urinary pH [+0.7 (0.3-1.2)]. Plasma renin, angiotensin-II and aldosterone were unchanged. Lixisenatide and iGlu reduced HbA1c similarly, by 0.8% ± 0.1% and 0.6% ± 0.1%, respectively, while postprandial glucose was lower with lixisenatide (P =.002). Compared with iGlu, lixisenatide reduced bodyweight [−1.4 kg (−2.5 to −0.2)] and increased postprandial mean arterial pressure [+9 mm Hg (4-14)]. Conclusion: Eight-week lixisenatide treatment does not affect postprandial (intra-)renal haemodynamics compared with iGlu when added to insulin-glargine in patients with T2DM without overt nephropathy. Prolonged lixisenatide treatment has a sustained natriuretic effect, which is in contrast to previous reports on long-acting GLP-1RA, reduces body weight and increases postprandial blood pressure compared with iGlu. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02276196.