OBJECTIVE Awake craniotomies are often characterized by alternating asleep-awake-asleep periods. Preceding the awake phase, patients are weaned from anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Although clinicians aim to minimize the time to awake for patient safety and operating room efficiency, in some patients, the time to awake exceeds 20 minutes. The goal of this study was to determine the average time to awake and the factors associated with prolonged time to awake (> 20 minutes) in patients undergoing awake craniotomy.METHODS Records of patients who underwent awake craniotomy between 2003 and 2020 were evaluated. Time to awake was defined as the time between discontinuation of propofol and remifentanil infusion and the time of extubation. Patient and perioperative characteristics were explored as predictors for time to awake using logistic regression analyses.RESULTS Data of 307 patients were analyzed. The median (IQR) time to awake was 13 (10–20) minutes and exceeded 20 minutes in 17% (95% CI 13%–21%) of the patients. In both univariate and multivariable analyses, increased age, nonsmoker status, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III versus II were associated with a time to awake exceeding 20 minutes. BMI, as well as the use of alcohol, drugs, dexamethasone, or antiepileptic agents, was not significantly associated with the time to awake.CONCLUSIONS While most patients undergoing awake craniotomy are awake within a reasonable time frame after discontinuation of propofol and remifentanil infusion, time to awake exceeded 20 minutes in 17% of the patients. Increasing age, nonsmoker status, and higher ASA classification were found to be associated with a prolonged time to awake.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1560-1566
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Issue number6
Early online date22 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Cite this