Objectives In patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, dysfunction is often underestimated by clinical measures due to invisible symptoms, including cognitive and emotional problems. Many of these patients need stroke care programme, but others do not. In this study, we aim to identify potential predictors of quality of life (QoL) in patients with TIA or minor stroke 1 year poststroke to be able to select which of these patients will need aftercare. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Single-centre hospital in the Netherlands. Participants 120 patients, diagnosed with TIA or minor stroke and discharged without rehabilitation treatment, completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures QoL (RAND-36), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), the degree of disability or functional dependence after stroke (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)) and symptoms of anxiety and depression specific to stroke (SSADQ) were assessed at baseline (2-6 weeks poststroke) and compared with follow-up at 1 year poststroke. Results Depression (B=-1.35, p<0.001) and anxiety (B=-0.57, p=0.041) at baseline predicted a worse mental component of QoL after 1 year. Depression (B=-1.100, p<0.001) at baseline, but also age (B=-0.261, p=0.002) and female sex (B=4.101, p=0.034) predicted a worse physical component of QoL after 1 year. Conclusion With the identification of these predictors, we might be able to select more efficiently and timely the patients with TIA or minor stroke who need stroke aftercare.