A reliable overview of data on the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in Russia is lacking and needed. All the available data on CT prevalence were analyzed in a systematic literature review on CT prevalence in Russia, strengthened with data from the multicenter study among 1263 people in the second-largest Russian megalopolis, St. Petersburg, testing for CT DNA in urethral, anal, cervical and prostate samples. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. The overall average prevalence of genital CT infections in Russian populations ranged from 2.9% to 33%. Risk factors included being symptomatic (P = 0.004; in men P < 0.001), being younger than 30 years (P = 0.001) and being a man who has sex with men (MSM) (P = 0.0084). Main limitations included the lack of studies in MSM. CT prevalence was higher in the groups where urethral and prostate secretion samples were pooled (5.2%-7.3% vs 3.2% in the urethra only). The data on CT prevalence in a range of Russian populations are analyzed and reported. Prostate secretions represent an additional sampling material for the study of CT infection in men. CT detection in some settings in St. Petersburg yielded levels of reliability comparable with internationally available tests. The initiation of screening programs for Chlamydia infections in Russia should be considered.