Progestin-related breast volume changes in a woman with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)

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SUMMARY: A 31-year-old woman with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) experienced breast volume fluctuations during biphasic hormone replacement therapy consisting of estradiol and cyclical dydrogesterone, a progestin. 3D breast volume measurements showed a 100 cc volume (17%) difference between estradiol monotherapy and combined estradiol and dydrogesterone treatment. Progestogen-dependent breast volume changes have not been reported in the literature. Our findings suggest a correlation between progestogen use and breast volume. Due to the rapid cyclical changes, we hypothesize that the effect is caused by fluid retention.

LEARNING POINTS: There is limited reports available on the effects of progesterone on breast development and volume. 3D imaging provides an easy-to-use method to quantify breast volume. The patient in our case description clearly showed that cyclic progesterone use might induce substantial cyclic changes in breast volume. In women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), monotherapy with estrogen or continuous supplementation of progesterone might be preferable over cyclic progesterone use.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Case Reports
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023

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