Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has limited treatment options and a poor outcome. Programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors have proven efficacious in several cancer types. Nivolumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 with a favorable toxicity profile. In MPM, the immune system is considered to play an important role. We therefore tested nivolumab in recurrent MPM. Methods: In this single-center trial, patients with MPM received nivolumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. Primary endpoint was the disease control rate at 12 weeks. Pre- and on-treatment biopsy specimens were obtained to analyze biomarkers for response. Results: Of the 34 patients included, 8 patients (24%) had a partial response at 12 weeks and another 8 had stable disease resulting in a disease control rate at 12 weeks of 47%. One reached a partial response at 18 weeks. In 4 patients with stable disease, the tumor remained stable for more than 6 months. Treatment-related adverse events of any grade occurred in 26 patients (76%), most commonly fatigue (29%) and pruritus (15%). Grades 3 and 4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 9 patients (26%), with pneumonitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and laboratory disorders mostly seen. One treatment-related death was due to pneumonitis and probably initiated by concurrent amiodarone therapy. PD-L1 was expressed on tumor cells in nine samples (27%), but did not correlate with outcome. Conclusions: Single-agent nivolumab has meaningful clinical efficacy and a manageable safety profile in pre-treated patients with mesothelioma. PD-L1 expression does not predict for response in this population.