Prospective analysis of clinically significant prostate cancer detection with [18F]DCFPyL PET/MRI compared to multiparametric MRI: a comparison with the histopathology in the radical prostatectomy specimen, the ProStaPET study

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is a well-established imaging method for localizing primary prostate cancer (PCa) and for guiding targeted prostate biopsies. [18F]DCFPyL positron emission tomography combined with MRI (PSMA-PET/MRI) might be of additional value to localize primary PCa. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI vs. mpMRI in tumour localization based on histopathology after robot-assisted radical-prostatectomy (RARP), also assessing biopsy advice for potential image-guided prostate biopsies.

METHODS: Thirty prospectively included patients with intermediate to high-risk PCa underwent [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI and mpMRI prior to RARP. Two nuclear medicine physicians and two radiologists assessed tumour localization on [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI and on mpMRI respectively, and gave a prostate biopsy advice (2 segments) using a 14-segment model of the prostate. The uro-pathologist evaluated the RARP specimen for clinically significant PCa (csPCa) using the same model. csPCa was defined as any PCa with Grade Group (GG) ≥ 2. The biopsy advice based on imaging was correlated with the final histology in the RARP specimen for a total-agreement analysis. An additional near-agreement correlation was performed to approximate clinical reality.

RESULTS: Overall, 142 of 420 (33.8%) segments contained csPCa after pathologic examination. The segments recommended for targeted biopsy contained the highest GG PCa segment in 27/30 patients (90.0%) both for [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI and mpMRI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the total-agreement detection of csPCa per segment using [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI were 0.70, 50.0%, 89.9%, 71.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. These results were 0.75, 54.2%, 94.2%, 82.8%, and 80.1%, respectively, for mpMRI only.

CONCLUSION: Both [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI and mpMRI were only partly able to detect csPCa on a per-segment basis. An accurate detection (90.0%) of the highest GG lesion at patient-level was observed when comparing both [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI and mpMRI biopsy advice with the histopathology in the RARP specimen. So, despite the finding that [18F]DCFPyL-PET/MRI adequately detects csPCa, it does not outperform mpMRI.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Early online date2 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Nov 2021

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