Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

J.J.M. Dekker, J. Peen, J.A. Koelen, H.F.E. Smit, R.A. Schoevers

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Abstract

Abstract
Background
Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization.

Methods
The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location.

The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation.

Results
Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders.

Conclusion
Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas. probably because of environmental stressors.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)17-26
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Cite this

Dekker, J. J. M., Peen, J., Koelen, J. A., Smit, H. F. E., & Schoevers, R. A. (2008). Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany. BMC Public Health, 8, 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-17
Dekker, J.J.M. ; Peen, J. ; Koelen, J.A. ; Smit, H.F.E. ; Schoevers, R.A. / Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany. In: BMC Public Health. 2008 ; Vol. 8. pp. 17-26.
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abstract = "AbstractBackgroundEpidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization.MethodsThe Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location.The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation.ResultsHigher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders.ConclusionPsychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas. probably because of environmental stressors.",
author = "J.J.M. Dekker and J. Peen and J.A. Koelen and H.F.E. Smit and R.A. Schoevers",
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Dekker, JJM, Peen, J, Koelen, JA, Smit, HFE & Schoevers, RA 2008, 'Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany' BMC Public Health, vol. 8, pp. 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-17

Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany. / Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 8, 2008, p. 17-26.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

AU - Dekker, J.J.M.

AU - Peen, J.

AU - Koelen, J.A.

AU - Smit, H.F.E.

AU - Schoevers, R.A.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - AbstractBackgroundEpidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization.MethodsThe Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location.The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation.ResultsHigher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders.ConclusionPsychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas. probably because of environmental stressors.

AB - AbstractBackgroundEpidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization.MethodsThe Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location.The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation.ResultsHigher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders.ConclusionPsychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas. probably because of environmental stressors.

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DO - 10.1186/1471-2458-8-17

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 17

EP - 26

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

ER -