Psychometric properties and norm scores of the sleep self report in Dutch children

L. M. H. Steur, M. A. Grootenhuis, C. B. Terwee, S. Pillen, N. G. J. Wolters, G. J. L. Kaspers, R. R. L. van Litsenburg

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Abstract

Background: Psychometrically robust questionnaires to assess self-reported sleep problems in children are important since sleep problems can have a major impact on child development. The Sleep Self Report (SSR) is a 26-item self-report tool measuring different sleep domains in children aged 7-12 years. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SSR and to provide Dutch norm scores. Methods: Children aged 7-12 years from the general population were recruited through a professional market research agency. In this population, structural validity was assessed with confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses, internal consistency was assessed with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and norm scores were provided. Additionally, children attending outpatient sleep clinics (clinical population) were invited to participate. SSR scores of the general population and the clinical population were compared to establish discriminative validity. Results: In total, 619 children (mean age: 9.94 ± 1.72 years) from the general population and 34 children (mean age: 9.21 ± 1.63 years) from sleep clinics participated. The 1-factor structure of the SSR was not confirmed with factor analysis. Exploratory analyses did also not yield an appropriate multidimensional structure. Internal consistency of the total score was adequate (Cronbach's alpha: 0.76). The total score distinguished the clinical population from the general population (39.07 ± 5.31 versus 31.61 ± 5.31; P < 0.01). Conclusions: An appropriate structure of the SSR was not found with factor analyses in this Dutch population. The adequate internal consistency indicates that the total score can be interpreted as a measure of overall sleep problems. The SSR also shows good discriminative validity. We recommend the total score to assess overall sleep problems and item scores to evaluate specific sleep issues and to follow up children's sleep longitudinally, as opposite changes in different item scores may not reflect in the total score. Further research on the development of multidimensional psychometrically sound pediatric sleep self-reports is of major importance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number15
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jan 2019

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