Body composition refers to the amount and distribution of lean tissue, adipose tissue, and bone in the human body. Lean tissue primarily consists of skeletal muscle; adipose tissue comprises mostly abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal and nonabdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Hepatocellular and myocellular lipids are also fat pools with important metabolic implications. Importantly, body composition reflects generalized processes such as increased adiposity in obesity and age-related loss of muscle mass known as sarcopenia.In recent years, body composition has been extensively studied quantitatively to predict overall health. Multiple imaging methods have allowed precise estimates of tissue types and provided insights showing the relationship of body composition to varied pathologic conditions. In this review article, we discuss different imaging methods used to quantify body composition and describe important anatomical locations where target tissues can be measured.