Context.-Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a very useful tool in the field of diagnostic respiratory cytology. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of EBUS-TBNA not only has the potential to improve diagnostic yield of the procedure but also to triage samples for predictive molecular testing to guide personalized treatments for lung cancer. Objective.-To provide an overview of the current status of the literature regarding ROSE of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Data Sources.-An electronic literature search in PubMed and Google databases was performed using the following key words: cytology, lung cancer, on-site evaluation, rapid on-site evaluation, and ROSE EBUSTBNA. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Conclusions.-Rapid on-site evaluation can ensure that the targeted lesion is being sampled and can enable appropriate specimen triage. If available, it should be used with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer because it can minimize repeat procedures for additional desired testing (ie, molecular studies). Some studies have shown that ROSE does not adversely affect the number of aspirations, total procedure time of EBUS-TBNA, or the rate of postprocedure complications; it is also helpful in providing a preliminary diagnosis that can reduce the number of additional invasive procedures, such as mediastinoscopy. As EBUS technology continues to evolve, our knowledge of the role of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lung cancer will also continue to grow and evolve.