Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate reasons why people consulted an occupational therapist following cancer treatment, and to examine the outcome of occupational therapy interventions, in the context of multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Methods: Data from 181 patients were collected retrospectively. The International Classification of Human Functioning and Health (ICF) was used to describe the reasons for occupational therapy consultation. Patients had completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement (COPM) before and after the occupational therapy intervention. Change scores were calculated with a 95% confidence interval and a two-sided p-value obtained from a paired t-test. Results: The reasons for occupational therapy consultation were predominantly within the ICF domain “Activities and Participation”. On average, patients improved 3.0 points (95% CI 2.8–3.2) on the performance scale of the COPM, and 3.4 points (95% CI 3.2–3.7) on the satisfaction scale (both: p = <.001). Conclusion: The result of this study supports the added value of occupational therapy to cancer rehabilitation, and emphasise the positive effect of occupational therapy on everyday functioning. Controlled clinical studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.