Recurrence Rate of Sporadic Pheochromocytomas After Curative Adrenalectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Isabelle Holscher, Tijs J. van den Berg, Koen M. A. Dreijerink, Anton F. Engelsman, Els J. M. Nieveen van Dijkum

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BACKGROUND: Evidence on follow-up duration for patients with sporadic pheochromocytomas is absent, and current guidelines of the European Society of Endocrinology, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Endocrine Surgeons, and the Endocrine Society are ambiguous about the appropriate duration of follow-up. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the recurrence rate of sporadic pheochromocytomas after curative adrenalectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed. A study was eligible if it included a clear report on the number of sporadic patients, recurrence rate, and follow-up duration. Studies with an inclusion period before 1990, <2 years of follow-up, <10 patients, and unclear data on the sporadic nature of pheochromocytomas were excluded. A meta-analysis on recurrence was performed provided that the heterogeneity was low (I2 < 25%) or intermediate (I2 26-75%). Hozo's method was used to calculate weighted mean follow-up duration and weighted time to recurrence with combined standard deviations (SDs). RESULTS: A total of 13 studies, including 430 patients, were included in the synthesis. The meta-analysis results describe a pooled recurrence rate after curative surgery of 3% (95% confidence interval: 2-6%, I2 = 0%), with a weighted mean time to recurrence of 49.4 months (SD = 30.7) and a weighted mean follow-up period of 77.3 months (SD = 32.2). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis shows a very low recurrence rate of 3%. Prospective studies, including economical and health effects of limited follow-up strategies for patients with truly sporadic pheochromocytomas should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)588-597
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021

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