Reliability of Processing 3-D Freehand Ultrasound Data to Define Muscle Volume and Echo-intensity in Pediatric Lower Limb Muscles with Typical Development or with Spasticity

Britta Hanssen*, Nathalie de Beukelaer, Simon-Henri Schless, Francesco Cenni, Lynn Bar-On, Nicky Peeters, Guy Molenaers, Anja van Campenhout, Christine van den Broeck, Kaat Desloovere

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This investigation assessed the processer reliability of estimating muscle volume and echo-intensity of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and semitendinosus. The muscles of 10 typically developing children (8.15 [1.40] y) and 15 children with spastic cerebral palsy (7.67 [3.80] y; Gross Motor Function Classification System I = 5, II = 5, III = 5) were scanned with 3-D freehand ultrasonography. For the intra-processer analysis, the intra-class correlations coefficients (ICCs) for muscle volume ranged from 0.943–0.997, with relative standard errors of measurement (SEM%) ranging from 1.24%–8.97%. For the inter-processer analysis, these values were 0.853 to 0.988 and 3.47% to 14.02%, respectively. Echo-intensity had ICCs >0.947 and relative SEMs <4% for both analyses. Muscle volume and echo-intensity can be reliably extracted for the rectus femoris, semitendinosus and tibialis anterior in typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy. The need for a single processer to analyze all data is dependent on the size of the expected changes or differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2702-2712
Number of pages11
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021

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