Quantitative evaluation of radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET scans may be used to monitor treatment response in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). To interpret longitudinal differences in PSMA uptake, the intrinsic variability of tracer uptake in PCa lesions needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of quantitative PET/CT measurements using 18F-DCFPyL ([2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-[(6-18F-fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentanedioic acid], a second-generation 18F-PSMA-ligand) in patients with PCa. Methods: Twelve patients with metastatic PCa were prospectively included, of whom 2 were excluded from final analyses. Patients received 2 whole-body 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT scans (median dose, 317 MBq; uptake time, 120 min) within a median of 4 d (range, 1-11 d). After semiautomatic (isocontour-based) tumor delineation, the following lesion-based metrics were derived: mean, peak, and maximum tumor-to-blood ratio; SUVmean, SUVpeak, and SUVmax normalized to body weight; tumor volume; and total lesion uptake (TLU). Additionally, patient-based total tumor volume (TTV) (sum of PSMA-positive tumor volumes) and total tumor burden (TTB) (sum of all lesion TLUs) were derived. Repeatability was analyzed using repeatability coefficients (RC) and intraclass correlation coefficients. Additionally, the effect of point-spread function (PSF) image reconstruction on the repeatability of uptake metrics was evaluated. Results: In total, 36 18F-DCFPyL PET-positive lesions were analyzed (≤5 lesions per patient). The RCs for mean, peak, and maximum tumor-to-blood ratio were 31.8%, 31.7%, and 37.3%, respectively. For SUVmean, SUVpeak, and SUVmax, the RCs were 24.4%, 25.3%, and 31.0%, respectively. All intraclass correlation coefficients were at least 0.97. Tumor volume delineations were quite repeatable, with an RC of 28.1% for individual lesion volumes and 17.0% for TTV. TTB had an RC of 23.2% and 33.4% when based on SUVmean and mean tumor-to-blood ratio, respectively. Small lesions (<4.2 cm3) had worse repeatability for volume measurements. The repeatability of SUVpeak, TLU, and all patient-level metrics was not affected by PSF reconstruction. Conclusion:18F-DCFPyL uptake measurements are quite repeatable and can be used for clinical validation in future treatment response assessment studies. Patient-based TTV may be preferred for multicenter studies because its repeatability was both high and robust to different image reconstructions.