OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and often fatal disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and right ventricular (RV) failure. End-stage PAH is often an indication for a lung transplant (LTX). Our goal was to study ventricular recovery using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging late after LTX. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with PAH who underwent isolated bilateral LTX. RV and left ventricular (LV) volumes, function and mass were measured. In addition, the RV stroke volume/end-systolic ratio (SV/ESV), the LV eccentricity index, the RV/LV volume ratio, the area of the tricuspid valve annulus and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) were calculated. RESULTS: The median age was 44 [30-54] years and the mean PVR was 1020 ± 435 dynes·s·cm â ' 5. Six patients had ≥ moderate TR. After LTX, the RV ejection fraction increased from 32 to 64% (P < 0.001) and both RV volume (from 118 to 51 ml/m 2, P < 0.001) and RV mass (from 69 to 33 g/m 2, P < 0.001) decreased. The mean SV/ESV ratio increased from 0.5 to 1.9 (P < 0.001) and the LV mass increased from 55 to 61 g/m 2 (P = 0.005). There was a decrease in both the LV eccentricity index (from 2.8 to 1.1, P < 0.001) and the RV/LV volume ratio (from 2.3 to 0.8, P < 0.001). The area of the tricuspid valve annulus also decreased (from 9.8 to 4.6 cm 2 /m 2, P < 0.001); no patient had ≥ mild TR post-LTX. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirms ventricular recovery after isolated bilateral LTX for end-stage PAH.