Background: The association between celiac disease (CD) and the development of lymphoid and gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies have been reported. However, data are scarce yet needed to develop evidence-based follow-up programs.
Objective: The objective of this article is to assess relative (RR) and absolute risks of lymphoma and GI carcinoma for newly diagnosed patients.
Methods: A case-control design to determine RR was performed with cases (lymphoma or GI carcinoma) and controls (melanoma or basal cell carcinoma) diagnosed 1994-2014, retrieved from the Dutch nationwide population-based pathology database (PALGA). Within this population, individuals with histologically proven CD before or simultaneously diagnosed with the malignancy were identified.
Results: A total of 349/301,425 cases (0.1%) and 282/576,971 (0.05%) controls were diagnosed with CD. Risk of T-cell lymphoma, predominantly enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), was strongly associated with CD diagnosis (RR = 35.8 (95% CI 27.1-47.4)). Although most often synchronously diagnosed, T-cell lymphoma RR ≥ 1 year after CD diagnosis was still elevated (RR = 12.7 (95% CI 7.6-21.3)). Other CD-associated malignancies were small bowel adenocarcinoma (RR = 11.9 (95% CI 8.2-17.2)) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 3.5 (95% CI 2.1-5.8)). Absolute risks were relatively low. Other types of lymphomas and GI carcinomas were not associated with CD.
Conclusion: Increased risk for specific malignancies in CD should alert physicians for EATL (both intestinal and extraintestinal) and small bowel adenocarcinoma in patients with CD diagnosed at age ≥ 50 years.