Objective: To investigate the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on working memory performance, while measuring task-related brain activation and task-related brain connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: 17 patients with MS and 11 healthy controls (HCs) underwent 3 experimental sessions (baseline, real-rTMS, sham-rTMS), all including an N-back task (3 task loads: N1, N2, N3; control condition: N0) inside the MR scanner. Prior to imaging, real-rTMS (10 Hz) was applied to the right DLPFC. The stimulation site was defined based on individually assessed N-back task activation at baseline and located using neuronavigation. Changes in whole brain functional activation and functional connectivity with the right DLPFC were calculated. Results: N-back task accuracy (N2 and N3) improved after real-rTMS (and not after sham-rTMS) compared with baseline (p=0.029 and p=0.015, respectively), only in patients. At baseline, patients with MS, compared with HCs, showed higher task-related frontal activation (left DLPFC, N2>N0), which disappeared after real-rTMS. Task-related (N1>N0) functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and the right caudate nucleus and bilateral (para)cingulate gyrus increased in patients after real-rTMS when compared with sham stimulation. Conclusions: In patients with MS, N-back accuracy improved while frontal hyperactivation (seen at baseline relative to HCs) disappeared after real-rTMS. Together with the changes in functional connectivity after real-rTMS in patients, these findings may represent an rTMS-induced change in network efficiency in patients with MS, shifting patients' brain function towards the healthy situation. This implicates a potentially relevant role for rTMS in cognitive rehabilitation in MS.
Hulst, H. E., Goldschmidt, T., Nitsche, M. A., De Wit, S. J., Van Den Heuvel, O. A., Barkhof, F., ... Geurts, J. J. G. (2017). RTMS affects working memory performance, brain activation and functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 88(5), 386-394. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314224