Myelin-containing macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Our recent transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) is one of the most potently induced genes in macrophages after uptake of myelin. CL-P1 is a type II transmembrane protein with both a collagen-like and carbohydrate recognition domain, which plays a key role in host defense. In this study we sought to determine the dynamics of CL-P1 expression on myelin-containing phagocytes and define the role that it plays in MS lesion development. We show that myelin uptake increases the cell surface expression of CL-P1 by mouse and human macrophages, but not by primary mouse microglia in vitro. In active demyelinating MS lesions, CL-P1 immunoreactivity was localized to perivascular and parenchymal myelin-laden phagocytes. Finally, we demonstrate that CL-P1 is involved in myelin internalization as knockdown of CL-P1 markedly reduced myelin uptake. Collectively, our data indicate that CL-P1 is a novel receptor involved in myelin uptake by phagocytes and likely plays a role in MS lesion development.