Little is known about the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance mutations present at time of regimen switch on the response to second-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa. In adults who switched to boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens after first-line failure, HIV-RNA and genotypic resistance testing was performed at switch and after 12 months. Factors associated with treatment failure were assessed using logistic regression. Of 243 participants, 53 were predicted to receive partially active second-line regimens due to drug resistance. The risk of treatment failure was, however, not increased in these participants. In this African cohort, boosted protease inhibitors successfully resuppressed drug-resistant HIV after first-line failure.