The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of expectation of secondary gain among first-generation immigrant Turkish patients referred to a psychiatric hospital and whether this prevalence differs from that of Dutch outpatients. The study was carried out in the outpatient department of a Dutch psychiatric hospital. Expectation of secondary gain was assessed by directly asking the patients, via questionnaires whether they hoped to gain specific "benefits" from being in therapy. The study found that 31.7% of the Turkish patients reported holding expectations of secondary gain while being in therapy versus 42.2% of the Dutch patients. Our finding of a large proportion of Turkish patients with expectations of secondary gain is consistent with the results of an earlier study of Dutch patients. However, in contrast to the findings of empirical research, Turkish immigrants were not found more than Dutch patients to have expectations of secondary gain. In fact, such expectations were more common among Dutch patients.